DES MOINES, Iowa — The Iowa Supreme Court has adopted new rules to prohibit the use of handcuffs, chains and other restraints for juveniles appearing in court unless a judge approves in advance.

Currently juvenile officers determine whether a child is restrained during court appearances.

An order signed by Chief Justice Mark Cady on Wednesday says the rules will become effective Jan. 1 unless a legislative council objects.

Cady’s order says the rule is flexible enough to deal with juveniles at risk of fleeing or endangering themselves or others.

The American Civil Liberties Union of Iowa and a children’s rights group at the Drake Law School pushed for the changes last year.

They say at least 28 states ban or limit the use of restraints on children in juvenile court hearings.